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Eco-system Management

Eco-system Management (17)

The world’s climate is changing at an unprecedented rate and this change will continue over the following decades (IPCC 2007). There is ample evidence that climate change has ecological consequences (Walther et al. 2002; Parmesan & Yohe 2003; Root et al. 2003; Parmesan 2006). The two best recorded climate-change-induced shifts are changes in phenology, i.e. in timing of vegetation development (Menzel & Fabian 1999), in spawning date in frogs and toads (Beebee 1995), return date of migrant birds (Hu ̈ppop & Hu ̈ppop 2003) and butterflies (Sparks et al. 2005), egg hatching date in insects (Visser & Holleman 2001), laying dates in birds (Crick et al. 1997), etc. and in range shifts, in the distribution of butterflies (Parmesan et al. 1999), breeding range (Thomas & Lennon 1999) or overwintering range (Austin & Rehfisch 2005) of birds, etc. Less widespread documented consequences of climate change are shifts in body size (Millien et al. 2006; Yom-Tov et al. 2006) and in changes in the strength of competition between species (Bertness &Ewanchuk 2002; Jiang & Morin 2004).

 

 

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Adaptation is becoming a key issue of post-2012 international climate policy negotiations. The December 2009 Copenhagen Accord (1) establishes that by 2020 developed countries will provide US$ 100 billion per year to address the needs of de veloping countries, including funding for adaptation. Indeed, even ambitious mitigation policies [e.g., the 2 °C target proposed by the European Union (EU) and endorsed by the G8 (2, 3)] will need to be complemented by adaptation strategies to lessen the impact of residual warming (4). Europe is preparing for a coordinated adaptation climate strategy from 2013, as set out in the European Commission White Paper on Adaptation (5). One of its main conclusions is that much still is unknown about the potential impacts of climate change on the European economy as a whole or with respect to different economic sectors and geographical regions of Europe (6–9).

 

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The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do notdrop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over thecoming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the ‘‘dust bowl’’ era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4 1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6 –1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding _1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

 

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This paper has been commissioned by the Commission on Climate Change. Its purpose is to function as food-for-thought for the work of the Commission. The Commission is not responsible for views expressed in this paper. The Commission is an international commission initiated and financed by the Swedish Government. The purpose of the Commission is to propose ways to integrate risk reduction and adaptation to climate change into the development and poverty reduction plans of poor countries. It is also to present proposals for how to design development cooperation programs that take account of climate impacts and the risk of disasters. The Commission will issue its report in spring 2009. The commissioners serve in their personal capacity. The Commission is supported by a Secretariat based in Stockholm, Sweden.

 

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The IPCC technical guideline for assessing climate change impacts and adaptations Carter etal.. 1994 provide generic guidance  to countries to wish to assess their vulnerability to Climate Change. For a range of Socio-Economic and  Physiographic systems.

 

 

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Climate change has been seriously noticed due to the visible impact on water, agriculture, health, biodiversity, forest and socio-economic sectors around the globe. According to IPCC (2007), developing and the least developed countries are expected to suffer more due to climate change as compared to the developed countries. This is visible at the community level; in case of any climatic anomaly the poor people face the consequences mostly due to lack of resources and access to information. Anthropogenic activities are mainly held responsible for the surging trend of climate related disasters occurring in different parts of the world and marginal income people are the major sufferers. After the Industrial Revolution, emission of Green House Gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere increased drastically from industry and vehicular fossil fuels. The continuous warming effect of these gases in the atmosphere is long term: easily lasting from about 50 years or more. Such gases have large warming potential and long life time to sustain warming process for decades to centuries. During 20th century, the increase in the global temperature was recorded as 0.76°C but in the first decade of this century 0.6°C rise has been noticed. Among the 16 warmest years recorded over the globe, 9 top most were from the first decade of 21st century.

 

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Pakistan's increasing vulnerability to climate change

As Pakistan struggles to recover from recent devastating floods in the country, it is pushing for recognition in the U.N. climate negotiations as one of those nations judged to be most vulnerable to climate change and in need of funding to cope.

This summer's flooding, caused by unprecedented monsoon rainfall, has drawn international attention to the damaging effects of climate change in the region, with the United Nations describing it as the world's worst humanitarian disaster in recent years.

"Climate change, with all its severity and unpredictability, has become a reality for 170 million Pakistanis. The present situation in Pakistan reconfirms our extreme vulnerability to the adverse impacts of climate change," Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureishi told the U.N. General Assembly in September this year.

 

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How valid are UK and EU claims to be leading the world in decarbonising their economies? Much of this
answer depends upon how you allocate responsibility for carbon emissions between countries. Under
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries are responsible for carbon emissions
produced within their borders. But in an increasingly globalised world, citizens of wealthier countries are
consuming a growing percentage of goods and services produced in developing countries. Are we simply off‐shoring our carbon emissions? This research note examines the record of, among others, the EU, China and the US from 1990 until 2006 (the most recent year for which data is available). We calculate estimates for the emissions consumed within each country, and compare these to the UNFCCC (Kyoto) carbon production emissions. Carbon consumption includes emissions embedded within traded goods and services. Our analysis makes a number of assumptions and generalisations, but the findings are broadly in line with existing academic findings, where these exist.

 

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Overview of electronic waste (e-waste) management practices and legislations, and their poor applications in the developing countries

 

 

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This paper investigates the poverty–environment nexus at the provincial and district levels in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. The analysis focuses on spatial associations between poverty populations and five environmental problems: deforestation, fragile soils, indoor air pollution, contaminated water, and outdoor air pollution. The results suggest that the nexus is quite different in each country. We conclude that the nexus concept can provide a useful catalyst for country-specific work, but not a general formula for program design. Joint implementation of poverty and environment strategies may be cost effective for some environmental problems, but independent implementation may be preferable in many cases as well.

 

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