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Global Climate Change (CC) resulting from an increasing concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has become an accepted and major theme in today‘s world.  According to the Intergovernmental Panel  on  Climate Change (IPCC), the average temperature of the earth increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century and it is expected to further increase by 1.4 to 5.8 º C by the end of the current century. These changes in temperature are but the crest of the many environmental, social  and  political  issues  which  will  follow in  the  wake of  the changing climate. Unfortunately the major causes of a rapidly warming climate can be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fuel, the depletion of forests and changes in land use (conversion of forest into agriculture land).


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Although the generalization has many important caveats, across the world the most efficient and productive agriculture is situated in countries in which farms are family-owned,large-scale and mechanized. However, comparisons of farming productivity across countries cannot easily identify the essential barriers to augmenting farming productivity, as countries differ in their property rights regimes, financial systems, labor markets, agroclimatic conditionsand other institutional and environmental features. A vast literature has highlighted, usually one at a time, various market imperfections as constraining agricultural productivity in poor countries. These include, for example, credit market barriers, lack of insurance, problems of worker effort, and labor market transaction costs. However, many of these market problems are not confined to poor countries. Moral hazard and adverse selection afflict credit markets in all settings, and farmers do not have unlimited access to capital anywhere in the world. Nor dofamily farms in many developed countries use employment schemes that differ importantly from those used in those low -income settings where family farms also dominate. And most farmers inhigh-income countries do not participate in formal crop, income or weather insurance markets. It is thus unlikely that labor market problems or lack of insurance or even credit constraints, can alone account for the large differences in the productivity of farms across many developed and developing countries.



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This Study was undertaken during February and March 2007. The aim of the Study was todescribe the main elements of the food processing industry in Pakistan. Food processing or manufacture is part of an integrated industry that takes agricultural raw materials and moves them through a complex value chain. This value chain connects the farmer often located in impoverished rural areas of the country, to consumers in cities both domestically and overseas. The key to success in this endeavor is to develop a fully advanced supply chain in every sub-sector of the food economy. In Pakistan this supply chain is either missing or highly distorted. A supply chain that does not adequately transmit information from the consumer to the producer accounts for the failure of the system to produce products efficiently or of the correct quality.



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Many energy projects are faced with the challenge of developing reliable, cost effective and credible means for measuring their effectiveness. This Guide proposes a step by step approach to building project-specific monitoring and evaluation procedures. The guide is intended for projects for which the M&E method has not already been determined by a project donor or stakeholder. The guide was developed by the M&EED Group, as a contribution to the progress of energy access projects. As with all development projects, energy projects aim to contribute to improving the economic, social and environmental conditions of life in developing countries. Project teams are generally faced with the need (and obligation) to demonstrate that the project does indeed make these contributions, and to do this, a plan for measuring the success, or Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is required.



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Cement manufacturing is an energy-intensive process due to the high temperatures required in the kilns for clinkerization. In 2005, the global cement industry consumed about 9 exajoules (EJ) of fuels and electricity for cement production (IEA 2007). Worldwide, coal is the predominant fuel burned in cement kilns. Global energy- and process-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cement manufacturing are estimated to be about 5% of global CO2 emissions (Metz 2007). Cement is made by combining clinker, a mixture of limestone and other raw materials that have been pyroprocessed in the cement kiln, with gypsum and other cementitious additives. Clinker production typically occurs in kilns heated to about 1450°C.



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A carbon project helps to mitigate climate change and thus to safeguard the planet; and you even get paid for it –how great is that?Unfortunately, it’s not such a straightforward process and there will be a lot of blood, sweat and tears on the way, but carbon finance can contribute to grow your business. The Ashden Awards and GVEP International have prepared this basic guide designed to help energy entrepreneurs to understand better whether they should consider carbon finance more closely in their business plans, and to provide recommendations on the first steps to assess their potential.


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How valid are UK and EU claims to be leading the world in decarbonising their economies? Much of this
answer depends upon how you allocate responsibility for carbon emissions between countries. Under
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries are responsible for carbon emissions
produced within their borders. But in an increasingly globalised world, citizens of wealthier countries are
consuming a growing percentage of goods and services produced in developing countries. Are we simply off‐shoring our carbon emissions? This research note examines the record of, among others, the EU, China and the US from 1990 until 2006 (the most recent year for which data is available). We calculate estimates for the emissions consumed within each country, and compare these to the UNFCCC (Kyoto) carbon production emissions. Carbon consumption includes emissions embedded within traded goods and services. Our analysis makes a number of assumptions and generalisations, but the findings are broadly in line with existing academic findings, where these exist.


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This study investigates the usefulness of rice husk as an alternative fuel for household energy. The work included an analysis of the production of rice in Perú, visits to the productive zones, evaluation of rice husk, development and test of rice husk briquettes and the stoves that use them as fuel.



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Close to home: subnational strategies for climate compatible development

April 2014

The battle for climate compatible development will be won or lost at the subnational level: in provinces, districts and cities. National governments depend on subnational actors to implement climate policies. What is more, innovation in climate compatible development can flourish at the subnational level when the appropriate legal and policy conditions are created.

Climate compatible development at the subnational level is characterised by distinct challenges:

  • Subnational institutions and leaders face intense local pressure to act on the negative impacts of climate extremes and disasters.
  • People's expectations for subnational authorities to respond may be out of sync with the powers and resources they have available.
  • Higher levels of scientific uncertainty about future climate trends at the local level (than at larger scale) can make it difficult to know if investments are 'climate-proof'.
  • Different subnational governments and agencies may struggle to coordinate with each other, making it harder to respond effectively to climate change and forge long-term solutions.
  • The scale and pace of urbanisation in many developing countries, including unplanned settlements and the informal economy, magnify these challenges.


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Innovation for Climate -Compatible development for the ‘bottom of the pyramid’

Policy brief March 2013

Essentially, significant parts of the world’s population continue to lack access to modern and clean forms of energy, with concomitant human, social, and economic costs for this group. While technology is often seen as key to addressing this challenge, translating this potential contribution into reality is complicated by the complexity of the problem and the relative paucity of the available resources. This policy brief will discuss how to organize and advance technological innovation – and key aspects of innovation policies – to contribute to climate-compatible development for the ‘bottom of the pyramid,’ drawing on lessons and experiences from the literature as well as two specific application areas, household energy and rural electricity. Basically, deployment of suitable technologies at large scale requires that close attention be paid to technology development/adaptation to ensure that the resulting technologies and products seen by users as offering useful services and at a price point that they (or the agencies supporting the deployment of these technologies) can afford. Innovative models, such as innovation prizes or advanced market commitments, may complement traditional ‘R&D’ push approaches to the development of such technology.


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