Global solar installations will reach 64.7 GW in 2016 according to Mercom Capital Group, a clean energy communications and research firm based in Texas. “The top 3 countries will be China, U.S., and Japan and they will account for about two thirds of the global market,” said Raj Prabhu, CEO and co-founder of Mercom.
Global Climate Change (CC) resulting from an increasing concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has become an accepted and major theme in today‘s world. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the average temperature of the earth increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century and it is expected to further increase by 1.4 to 5.8 º C by the end of the current century. These changes in temperature are but the crest of the many environmental, social and political issues which will follow in the wake of the changing climate. Unfortunately the major causes of a rapidly warming climate can be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fuel, the depletion of forests and changes in land use (conversion of forest into agriculture land).
This was a case study to observe the environmental pollution of pulp and paper mill with respect to human health problems. A pulp and paper mill namely Vamasdhara at Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh, India) was visited for observation, data collection and sample analysis for various pollution parameters like pH, suspended solids, total solids, COD and BOD. Samples were collected from different units (viz. black liquor from slant screen, brown stock washers (BSW)-1, paper machine back water, thickner filterate, inlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPin), outlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPout) or final discharge) of the mill. Five samples for each site analyzed in duplicate and averages were taken. General health information of a total of 135 mill workers was also observed and obtained through questionnaire/ interview schedule. Mill has high pollution parameters. pH, suspended solids (g/l), total solids (g/l), COD (Mg/l) and BOD5 (Mg/l) for inlet and outlet to ETP are respectively 7.85, 1.83, 7.96, 1744, 686 and 8.3, 1.25, 4.63, 546, 329. Environmental toxicity specially water toxicity due to some of the hazardous pollutants have more effect on health. Hair loss from hands and fingers without nails (partially and fully) and other dermal problems like rashes and itching on hands were noticed in 9 out of 15 workers at secondary fibre recovery plant of the mill. Improvement in design, processing and advancement in eco-friendly technology will not only improve the productivity of mill but the community health also through better utilization of resources, waste disposal and water treatment generated by pulp and paper industry. Further intervention and research is required or development of water supply surveillance and strategies for improvement in environment and community health.
Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.
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Climate change or global warming is an important research area now. Unless proper adaptation strategies are implemented, it will have far reaching environmental changes that could have severe impacts on societies throughout the world. Further, it will have multidimensional effect on humanity in terms of several socio-economic parameters like agriculture, human health, sea level rise, scarcity of labour, disease prevalence etc. Hence any scientific study on climate change should take into account vulnerabilities of the different regions and then it has to study its impacts on several sectors.
Land reform is probably one of the most difficult domestic policy issues to be dealt with by Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and Australia. In each of these countries the process of land reform is incomplete. Zimbabwe, on one side of the spectrum, is facing a crisis in democratization due to its radical approach to land reform. On the other side of the spectrum is Australia which, as a stable and respected democracy, has difficulty explaining why the land needs of sucha small minority of its people cannot be dealt with more effectively. In between there is Namibia, where the winds of change and the pressure to ‘radicalise’land reform are increasing. And then there is South Africa where systems and policies to deal with land reform are probably the most advanced from a legal perspective, but where the resources, patience and other practical issues to execute reform effectively are becoming serious hurdles in implementing policies.
In April 2008, Washington identified Pakistan as a “Global Food Initiative” priority country needing assistance in addressing its food security situation. It is expected that such assistance will play an important role in enhancing stability in Pakistan and within the region. In the following months, USAID/Pakistan initiated an effort to design a food and agriculture project in response to this initiative. An initial concept paper was prepared as a first step in the project design effort. The present paper expands that initial step into a more detailed project description. Pakistan is characterized by a high degree of income inequality and geographic disparities, two major sources of potential destabilization. Those divisions are particularly pronounced in the rural areas, where most of the rural poor lack access to land, irrigation water and other factors of production. Reducing poverty and income inequality will require revitalization of the rural economy.
Contract farming is one solution to overcome market related transaction costs. When transaction costs are small or absent, market transactions are usually efficient and improve aggregate welfare. However, when transaction costs are high, or markets fail owing to reasons like asymmetric information, a number of voluntary but non-spot transactions are often carried out between economic agents. There are many ways that markets fail in Indian agriculture. Imperfect credit markets, lump sum transportation costs for small amounts of produce, imperfect information about market prices, lack of technological knowledge, inability of small and marginal farmers to absorb the risks of loss, etc. are only a few of them. In this paper we look at specific cases to see how some of these problems have been solved through agreements among farmers and between farmers and integrators.
During the past couple of decades the integration of poor countries in global agricultural markets accelerated with increased food exports originating from developing countries. At the same time, there have been important structural changes in global agrifood markets. The structure of world food trade, and especially of developing countries’ exports, has changed dramatically with traditional tropical export products (such as coffee, cocoa, and tea) loosing importance and non-traditional high-value commodities (such as horticulture and seafood products) gaining importance. In addition, food trade is increasingly consolidated with large multinational food companies (such as retail chains and processing companies) increasingly dominating global agri-food chains. Moreover, food standards (including for example food quality and safety standards) have been increasing very sharply and global agri-food trade is increasingly regulated through public as well as private standards.